Results for Tag mutualism

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  • Alex Wild
    Pheidole dentata

    Pheidole dentata

  • African Wildlife and Nature Photographs
    Portrait of an African Giraffe (Giraffa. g. giraffa) feeding on acacia in late afternoon sunshine, while a yellow billed oxpecker (Buphagus africanus) also feeds on ticks from the Giraffe. - Kruger National Park - South Africa.

    Portrait of an African Giraffe (Giraffa. g. giraffa) feeding on acacia in late afternoon sunshine, while a yellow billed oxpecker (Buphagus africanus) also feeds on ticks from the Giraffe. - ...

  • Jeremy K Brown
    Maldive anemonefish

    Maldive anemonefish

  • Jeremy K Brown
    Maldive anemonefish

    Maldive anemonefish

  • Alex Wild
    Mottled-head Gum-leafhopper - Eurymeloides punctata - with Iridomyrmex bicknelli

    Mottled-head Gum-leafhopper - Eurymeloides punctata - with Iridomyrmex bicknelli

  • Jim Patterson
    Three anemonefish in green anemone

    Three anemonefish in green anemone

  • Jim Patterson
    Peeking Through

    Peeking Through

  • Jim Patterson
    Clownfish Duo

    Clownfish Duo

  • Jim Patterson
    Out of the Shadows

    Out of the Shadows

  • Jim Patterson
    Clownfish and Purple Anemone Close-Up

    Clownfish and Purple Anemone Close-Up

  • Jim Patterson
    Emerging

    Emerging

  • Jim Patterson
    Anemonefish at Home

    Anemonefish at Home

  • Jim Patterson
    Anemonefish Trio in Indonesia

    Anemonefish Trio in Indonesia

  • Jim Patterson
    Dance of the Clownfish

    Dance of the Clownfish

  • Alex Wild
    Crematogaster carinata

    Crematogaster carinata

  • BERLINTAPETE ? SERVICE
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    42-44664020

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    437702

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    135197

  • Paul Bertner
    Ant drinking honeydew from aphid (Aphis sambuci)

    Ant drinking honeydew from aphid (Aphis sambuci)

  • Ben Cherry
    Hungry Tree Shrew

    Hungry Tree Shrew

  • Paul Bertner
    Ant coaxing honeydew from cicadellid

    Ant coaxing honeydew from cicadellid

  • Paul Bertner
    Carpenter ant (Camponotus gigas) drinking honeydew from lanterbug (Pyrops ruehli)

    Carpenter ant (Camponotus gigas) drinking honeydew from lanterbug (Pyrops ruehli)

  • Paul Bertner
    Myrmecine ants (Meranoplus sp.) tending to mealy bug

    Myrmecine ants (Meranoplus sp.) tending to mealy bug

  • Paul Bertner
    Myrmecine ant (Meranoplus sp.) tending to juvenile cicadellid

    Myrmecine ant (Meranoplus sp.) tending to juvenile cicadellid

  • Paul Bertner
    Myrmecine ant (Meranoplus sp.) tending to juvenile cicadellid

    Myrmecine ant (Meranoplus sp.) tending to juvenile cicadellid

  • Paul Bertner
    Ant liquid-food exchange (Trophollaxis)

    Ant liquid-food exchange (Trophollaxis)

  • Paul Bertner
    Ant milking honeydew from aphids (Aphis sambuci)

    Ant milking honeydew from aphids (Aphis sambuci)

  • Paul Bertner
    Ant milking honeydew from aphids (Aphis sambuci)

    Ant milking honeydew from aphids (Aphis sambuci)

  • Paul Bertner
    Yellow ant tending to aphids

    Yellow ant tending to aphids

  • Paul Bertner
    Weevil with epizootic moss garden

    Weevil with epizootic moss garden

  • Paul Bertner
    Weevil with epizootic moss garden

    Weevil with epizootic moss garden

  • bioimage
    lichens on rock Acadia np

    lichens on rock Acadia np

  • bioimage
    green crustose lichen

    green crustose lichen

  • Paul Bertner
    Crematogaster ants tending lycaenid caterpillar

    Crematogaster ants tending lycaenid caterpillar

  • Paul Bertner
    Crematogaster ants tending lycaenid caterpillar

    Crematogaster ants tending lycaenid caterpillar

  • Paul Bertner
    Crematogaster ants tending lycaenid caterpillar

    Crematogaster ants tending lycaenid caterpillar

  • Paul Bertner
    Rainbow scale insect with ant farming honeydew

    Rainbow scale insect with ant farming honeydew

  • Paul Bertner
    Weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) guarding scale insects

    Weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) guarding scale insects

  • Paul Bertner
    Shield ants (Meranoplus sp.) farming scale insects

    Shield ants (Meranoplus sp.) farming scale insects

  • Paul Bertner
    Weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) protecting scale insects

    Weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) protecting scale insects

  • bioimage
    whisk fern

    whisk fern

  • Alex Wild
    Apterostigma collare

    Apterostigma collare

  • Ben Cherry
    Hungry Tree Shrew

    Hungry Tree Shrew

  • bioimage
    trail of lef cutter ants

    trail of lef cutter ants

  • bioimage
    leaf cutter ants belize

    leaf cutter ants belize

  • bioimage
    lichen on lava mt washburn

    lichen on lava mt washburn

  • bioimage
    varying rim lichen arches np

    varying rim lichen arches np

  • bioimage
    red goldenrod aphids

    red goldenrod aphids

  • bioimage
    symbiosis - cantharellus mushroom

    symbiosis - cantharellus mushroom

  • SmugMug
    A manta ray being cleaned by fishes at an area known as a cleaning station.

    A manta ray being cleaned by fishes at an area known as a cleaning station.

  • Alex Wild
    Ant Garden

    Ant Garden

  • Alex Wild
    Azteca gnava

    Azteca gnava

  • Alex Wild
    Dolichoderus bispinosus

    Dolichoderus bispinosus

  • Alex Wild
    Azteca constructor

    Azteca constructor

  • Alex Wild
    Camponotus sp.

    Camponotus sp.

  • Alex Wild
    Myrmecophila sp.

    Myrmecophila sp.

  • Alex Wild
    Azteca constructor

    Azteca constructor

  • Alex Wild
    Azteca constructor

    Azteca constructor

  • Alex Wild
    Pseudomyrmex peperi

    Pseudomyrmex peperi

  • Alex Wild
    Pseudomyrmex peperi

    Pseudomyrmex peperi

  • Alex Wild
    Pseudomyrmex peperi

    Pseudomyrmex peperi

  • Alex Wild
    Anoplolepis gracilipes

    Anoplolepis gracilipes

  • Alex Wild
    A few centimeters underground, Solenopsis molesta thief ants tend to ground pearls (Margarodidae) tapped into grass roots. Urbana, Illinois, USA

    A few centimeters underground, Solenopsis molesta thief ants tend to ground pearls (Margarodidae) tapped into grass roots. Urbana, Illinois, USA

  • Alex Wild
    Pseudomyrmex peperi

    Pseudomyrmex peperi

  • Alex Wild
    Swollen thorn acacia with Pseudomyrmex peperi

    Swollen thorn acacia with Pseudomyrmex peperi

  • Alex Wild
    Swollen thorn acacia with Pseudomyrmex peperi

    Swollen thorn acacia with Pseudomyrmex peperi

  • Alex Wild
    Pseudomyrmex peperi

    Pseudomyrmex peperi

  • Alex Wild
    A few centimeters underground, Solenopsis molesta thief ants tend to ground pearls (Margarodidae) tapped into grass roots. Urbana, Illinois, USA

    A few centimeters underground, Solenopsis molesta thief ants tend to ground pearls (Margarodidae) tapped into grass roots.

Urbana, Illinois, USA

  • Alex Wild
    In exchange for protection, swollen-thorn Acacia trees provide Pseudomyrmex ants with food and shelter. Here an ant feeds from a leaf nectary. (Pseudomyrmex spinicola) Chiriqui, Panama

    In exchange for protection, swollen-thorn Acacia trees provide Pseudomyrmex ants with food and shelter.  Here an ant feeds from a leaf nectary. (Pseudomyrmex spinicola)

Chiriqui, Panama

  • Alex Wild
    BugShot Belize aspires to teach more than just photographic technique. We also aim to provide a basic foundation in tropical ecology. With a sense of context for the local insects, you'll be able to find and tell fascinating natural history stories. This photo shows a Pseudomyrmex peperi twig ant taking a nutritious food body from a swollen-thorn Acacia tree, a common understory species at Caves Branch. The tree feeds and houses the ants in exchange for protection from the forest's incessant herbivores and aggressive vines. The ant-acacia story is a classic example of a tropical mutualism. If you know to look for it, you'll take some stunning photographs.

    BugShot Belize aspires to teach more than just photographic technique. We also aim to provide a basic foundation in tropical ecology. With a sense of context for the local insects, you'll be ...

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Camouflage (Denise's Pygmy Seahorse) @ Tulamben, Indonesia

    Camouflage (Denise's Pygmy Seahorse) @ Tulamben, Indonesia

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Denise's Pygmy Seahorse @ Tulamben, Indonesia

    Denise's Pygmy Seahorse @ Tulamben, Indonesia

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Eyedoctor (Grouper with Cleaner Shrimp) @ Tulamben, Indonesia Asian Geographic Issue 5, 2013.

    Eyedoctor (Grouper with Cleaner Shrimp) @ Tulamben, Indonesia
Asian Geographic Issue 5, 2013.

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Sea Fan Shrimp @ Tulamben, Indonesia

    Sea Fan Shrimp @ Tulamben, Indonesia

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Love (Clownfish Brooding Her Eggs) @ Tulamben, Indonesia

    Love (Clownfish Brooding Her Eggs) @ Tulamben, Indonesia

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Imperial Shrimp with Starfish @ Tulamben, Indonesia

    Imperial Shrimp with Starfish @ Tulamben, Indonesia

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Clownfish Yawn @ Tulamben, Indonesia

    Clownfish Yawn @ Tulamben, Indonesia

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Golden Warrior (Whip Coral Shrimp)@ Tulamben, Indonesia

    Golden Warrior (Whip Coral Shrimp)@ Tulamben, Indonesia

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Stare (Denise's Pygmy Seahorse) @ Tulamben, Indonesia

    Stare (Denise's Pygmy Seahorse) @ Tulamben, Indonesia

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Coleman Shrimp Portrait @ Tulamben, Indonesia

    Coleman Shrimp Portrait @ Tulamben, Indonesia

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Dentist (A Grouper Being Groomed By A Cleaner Shrimp) @ Tulamben, Indonesia

    Dentist (A Grouper Being Groomed By A Cleaner Shrimp) @ Tulamben, Indonesia

  • Alex Wild
    Melissotarsus weissi nest in tree bark with symbiotic diaspidid scale insects. Kibale Forest, Uganda

    Melissotarsus weissi nest in tree bark with symbiotic diaspidid scale insects.

Kibale Forest, Uganda

  • Alex Wild
    Pseudomyrmex peperi is an obligate Acacia inhabitant that zealously protects its host from intruding herbivores and aggressive vines. Here, workers cut a tendril that touched their tree. Armenia, Belize

    Pseudomyrmex peperi is an obligate Acacia inhabitant that zealously protects its host from intruding herbivores and aggressive vines. Here, workers cut a tendril that touched their tree. 

 ...

  • Alex Wild
    Pseudomyrmex peperi is an obligate Acacia inhabitant. Here, a worker gathers a lipid-rich Beltian body from a leaf tip. The plant feeds the ants in exchange for protection from herbivores and competing plants. Armenia, Belize

    Pseudomyrmex peperi is an obligate Acacia inhabitant. Here, a worker gathers a lipid-rich Beltian body from a leaf tip. The plant feeds the ants in exchange for protection from herbivores an ...

  • Alex Wild
    Melissotarsus weissi Kibale Forest, Uganda

    Melissotarsus weissi

Kibale Forest, Uganda

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, 1830 Ocellaris Clownfish At the reef crest, in association with a Bubble-tip anemone and a colony of corallimorphs.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Amphiprion ocellaris  Cuvier, 1830
Ocellaris Clownfish

At the reef crest, in association with a Bubble-tip anemone and a colony of corallimor ...

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, 1830 Ocellaris Clownfish At the reef crest, in association with a Bubble-tip anemone and a colony of corallimorphs.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Amphiprion ocellaris  Cuvier, 1830
Ocellaris Clownfish

At the reef crest, in association with a Bubble-tip anemone and a colony of corallimor ...

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, 1830 Ocellaris Clownfish At the reef crest, in association with a Bubble-tip anemone and a colony of corallimorphs.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Amphiprion ocellaris  Cuvier, 1830
Ocellaris Clownfish

At the reef crest, in association with a Bubble-tip anemone and a colony of corallimor ...

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, 1830 Ocellaris Clownfish At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Amphiprion ocellaris  Cuvier, 1830
Ocellaris Clownfish

At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, 1830 Ocellaris Clownfish At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Amphiprion ocellaris  Cuvier, 1830
Ocellaris Clownfish

At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, 1830 Ocellaris Clownfish At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Amphiprion ocellaris  Cuvier, 1830
Ocellaris Clownfish

At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, 1830 Ocellaris Clownfish At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Amphiprion ocellaris  Cuvier, 1830
Ocellaris Clownfish

At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, 1830 Ocellaris Clownfish At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Amphiprion ocellaris  Cuvier, 1830
Ocellaris Clownfish

At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, 1830 Ocellaris Clownfish At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Amphiprion ocellaris  Cuvier, 1830
Ocellaris Clownfish

At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, 1830 Ocellaris Clownfish At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Amphiprion ocellaris  Cuvier, 1830
Ocellaris Clownfish

At the reef crest, in association with a large Magnficent Anemone.

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Crucfix Crab (Charybdis Feriatus) in Jellyfish @ Long Dong, Taiwan

    Crucfix Crab (Charybdis Feriatus) in Jellyfish @ Long Dong, Taiwan

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Candy Crab with Soft Coral @ Keelung, Taiwan

    Candy Crab with Soft Coral @ Keelung, Taiwan

  • Alex Wild
    Pseudomyrmex peperi

    Pseudomyrmex peperi

  • Alex Wild
    Pseudomyrmex peperi

    Pseudomyrmex peperi

  • Alex Wild
    Pseudomyrmex peperi

    Pseudomyrmex peperi

  • Yen-Yi Lee
    Imperial Shrimp @ Long Dong, Taiwan

    Imperial Shrimp @ Long Dong, Taiwan

  • Alex Wild
    Azteca sp.

    Azteca sp.

  • Alex Wild
    Formica montana tending Publilia treehopper nymphs for honeydew. Lake Forest, Illinois, USA

    Formica montana tending Publilia treehopper nymphs for honeydew.

Lake Forest, Illinois, USA

  • Alex Wild
    A scale insect tended by Crematogaster ants. Carrancas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    A scale insect tended by Crematogaster ants.

Carrancas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

  • Alex Wild
    Acropyga goeldii

    Acropyga goeldii

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Clepticus parrae (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Creole Wrasse Creole wrasse being cleaned by several juvenile bluehead wrasses acting as cleaner fish.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. 

Clepticus parrae  (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)  
Creole Wrasse  

Creole wrasse being cleaned by several juvenile bluehead wrasses acting as cle ...

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Mycteroperca bonaci Poey, 1860 Black Grouper Large Black Grouper at a cleaning station, having parasites picked off by a bunch of Caribbean Cleaner Gobies.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. 

Mycteroperca bonaci  Poey, 1860 
Black Grouper  

Large Black Grouper at a cleaning station, having parasites picked off by a bunch of Caribb ...

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Mycteroperca bonaci Poey, 1860 Black Grouper Large Black Grouper at a cleaning station, having parasites picked off by a bunch of Caribbean Cleaner Gobies.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. 

Mycteroperca bonaci  Poey, 1860 
Black Grouper  

Large Black Grouper at a cleaning station, having parasites picked off by a bunch of Caribb ...

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Mycteroperca bonaci Poey, 1860 Black Grouper Large Black Grouper at a cleaning station, having parasites picked off by a bunch of Caribbean Cleaner Gobies.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. 

Mycteroperca bonaci  Poey, 1860 
Black Grouper  

Large Black Grouper at a cleaning station, having parasites picked off by a bunch of Caribb ...

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Mycteroperca bonaci Poey, 1860 Black Grouper Large Black Grouper at a cleaning station, having parasites picked off by a bunch of Caribbean Cleaner Gobies. The black grouper is a large marine fish, growing up to 150 centimetres in length and 100 kilograms in weight. It has an olive or gray body, with black blotches and brassy spots. The preopercle is gently rounded. The black grouper is a solitary fish. The fish spawns between May and August. It is a protogynous hermaphrodite, i.e. the young are predominantly female but transform into males as they grow larger. Adults feed mainly on other fish and squid, though the younger fish feed on crustaceans especially shrimp.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. 

Mycteroperca bonaci  Poey, 1860 
Black Grouper  

Large Black Grouper at a cleaning station, having parasites picked off by a bunch of Caribb ...

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Pederson's Cleaner Shrimp (Periclimenes pedersoni) in a Corkscrew Anemone (Bartholomea annulata). These shrimp lure fish with their antennae so they can comb the fish's body in a "cleaning" process, picking off parasites and dead tissue. Many fish will even let them clean the inside of their mouths. These shrimp form relationships with anemones, especially the Corkscrew Anemome. The anemone allows the shrimp to live within its tentacles for protection, and in return receives scraps from the shimp's meals. These shrimp have transparent bodies with beautiful blue and purple markings. The shrimp subfamily Pontoniinae inhabit coral reefs, where they associate with certain invertebrates such as sponges, cnidarians, mollusks and echinoderms. This group includes cleaner shrimps as well as parasites and commensals. They generally feed on detritus, though some are carnivores and hunt tiny animals. Belize Barrier Reef, Ambergris Caye, Belize.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Pederson's Cleaner Shrimp (Periclimenes pedersoni) in a Corkscrew Anemone (Bartholomea annulata).

These shrimp lure fish with their antennae s ...

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Pederson's Cleaner Shrimp (Periclimenes pedersoni) in a Corkscrew Anemone (Bartholomea annulata). These shrimp lure fish with their antennae so they can comb the fish's body in a "cleaning" process, picking off parasites and dead tissue. Many fish will even let them clean the inside of their mouths. These shrimp form relationships with anemones, especially the Corkscrew Anemome. The anemone allows the shrimp to live within its tentacles for protection, and in return receives scraps from the shimp's meals. These shrimp have transparent bodies with beautiful blue and purple markings. The shrimp subfamily Pontoniinae inhabit coral reefs, where they associate with certain invertebrates such as sponges, cnidarians, mollusks and echinoderms. This group includes cleaner shrimps as well as parasites and commensals. They generally feed on detritus, though some are carnivores and hunt tiny animals. Belize Barrier Reef, Ambergris Caye, Belize.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Pederson's Cleaner Shrimp (Periclimenes pedersoni) in a Corkscrew Anemone (Bartholomea annulata).

These shrimp lure fish with their antennae s ...

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Halichoeres garnoti (Valenciennes, 1839) (terminal male) Yellowheaded Wrasse Yellow-headed Wrasse, terminal male.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. 

Halichoeres garnoti   (Valenciennes, 1839)  
(terminal male)  Yellowheaded Wrasse  

Yellow-headed Wrasse, terminal male.

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Halichoeres garnoti (Valenciennes, 1839) (terminal male) Yellowheaded Wrasse Yellow-headed Wrasse, terminal male.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. 

Halichoeres garnoti     (Valenciennes, 1839)
(terminal male)  Yellowheaded Wrasse  

Yellow-headed Wrasse, terminal male.

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Colony of Caribbean Cleaning Gobies (Elacatinus evelynae) at a cleaning station on the face of a large Brain Coral.

    © Joseph Dougherty.  All rights reserved.

Colony of Caribbean Cleaning Gobies (Elacatinus evelynae) at a cleaning station on the face of a large Brain Coral.

  • Alex Wild
    Formica montana tending Publilia treehopper nymphs for honeydew. Lake Forest, Illinois, USA

    Formica montana tending Publilia treehopper nymphs for honeydew.

Lake Forest, Illinois, USA

  • Alex Wild
    Prenolepis imparis

    Prenolepis imparis

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Ctenochaetuc strigosus Bennett, 1828 Kole Surgeonfish aka Kole Tang or Spotted Surgeonfish Lysmata amboinensis De Man, 1888 Scarlet Cleaner Shrimp aka Northern Cleaner Shrimp, Skunk Cleaner Shrimp or Pacific Cleaner shrimp Kole Tang and Anthias lining up to be cleaned by a cleaner shrimp at a cleaning station. It has been observed that fish with parasites may come to "cleaning stations" in the reef. Certain species of fish and several types of cleaner shrimp may assist the fish in large numbers and even go inside the mouth (and then to the gill cavity) without being eaten. L. amboinensis is naturally part of the reef ecosystem, and is widespread in the Red Sea and tropical Indo-Pacific.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Ctenochaetuc strigosus Bennett, 1828
Kole Surgeonfish  aka Kole Tang or Spotted Surgeonfish

Lysmata amboinensis De Man, 1888
Scarlet Cleaner Shrim ...

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Ctenochaetuc strigosus Bennett, 1828 Kole Surgeonfish aka Kole Tang or Spotted Surgeonfish Lysmata amboinensis De Man, 1888 Scarlet Cleaner Shrimp aka Northern Cleaner Shrimp, Skunk Cleaner Shrimp or Pacific Cleaner shrimp Kole Tang and Anthias lining up to be cleaned by a cleaner shrimp at a cleaning station. It has been observed that fish with parasites may come to "cleaning stations" in the reef. Certain species of fish and several types of cleaner shrimp may assist the fish in large numbers and even go inside the mouth (and then to the gill cavity) without being eaten. L. amboinensis is naturally part of the reef ecosystem, and is widespread in the Red Sea and tropical Indo-Pacific.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Ctenochaetuc strigosus Bennett, 1828
Kole Surgeonfish  aka Kole Tang or Spotted Surgeonfish

Lysmata amboinensis De Man, 1888
Scarlet Cleaner Shrim ...

  • ecophotog
    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved. Ctenochaetuc strigosus Bennett, 1828 Kole Surgeonfish aka Kole Tang or Spotted Surgeonfish Lysmata amboinensis De Man, 1888 Scarlet Cleaner Shrimp aka Northern Cleaner Shrimp, Skunk Cleaner Shrimp or Pacific Cleaner shrimp Kole Tang and Anthias lining up to be cleaned by a cleaner shrimp at a cleaning station. It has been observed that fish with parasites may come to "cleaning stations" in the reef. Certain species of fish and several types of cleaner shrimp may assist the fish in large numbers and even go inside the mouth (and then to the gill cavity) without being eaten. L. amboinensis is naturally part of the reef ecosystem, and is widespread in the Red Sea and tropical Indo-Pacific.

    © Joseph Dougherty. All rights reserved.

Ctenochaetuc strigosus Bennett, 1828
Kole Surgeonfish  aka Kole Tang or Spotted Surgeonfish

Lysmata amboinensis De Man, 1888
Scarlet Cleaner Shrim ...

  • Alex Wild
    Plants of the genus Inga have nectaries on the upper surface of their leaves to attract ants that may remove the plants' herbivores.This one has brought in a Camponotus carpenter ant. Napo, Ecuador

    Plants of the genus Inga have nectaries on the upper surface of their leaves to attract ants that may remove the plants' herbivores.This one has brought in a Camponotus carpenter ant.

Nap ...

  • Alex Wild
    A Linepithema iniquum worker collects honeydew from a flat scale insect. Maquipucuna reserve, Pichincha, Ecuador

    A Linepithema iniquum worker collects honeydew from a flat scale insect.

Maquipucuna reserve, Pichincha, Ecuador

  • Alex Wild
    Allomerus octoarticulatus

    Allomerus octoarticulatus

  • Alex Wild
    The swollen stem of a Cordia nodosa plant houses a symbiotic colony of Azteca ants. The ants protect the plant from herbivores in exchange for lodging. Jatun Sacha reserve, Napo, Ecuador

    The swollen stem of a Cordia nodosa plant houses a symbiotic colony of Azteca ants. The ants protect the plant from herbivores in exchange for lodging.

Jatun Sacha reserve, Napo, Ecuador

  • Alex Wild
    The swollen stem of a Cordia nodosa plant houses a symbiotic colony of Azteca ants. The ants protect the plant from herbivores in exchange for lodging. Jatun Sacha reserve, Napo, Ecuador

    The swollen stem of a Cordia nodosa plant houses a symbiotic colony of Azteca ants. The ants protect the plant from herbivores in exchange for lodging.

Jatun Sacha reserve, Napo, Ecuador

  • Alex Wild
    Camponotus (Myrmmobrachys) workers feed from a bird dropping. These ants house bacterial symbionts (Blochmannia) in their guts that allow them to process such nitrogen-rich resources. Alluriquín, Pichincha, Ecuador

    Camponotus (Myrmmobrachys) workers feed from a bird dropping. These ants house bacterial symbionts (Blochmannia) in their guts that allow them to process such nitrogen-rich resources.

Allur ...

  • Alex Wild
    A Camponotus (Myrmmobrachys) ant feeds from the nectaries of an Inga plant. The plant presumably gains protection from herbivorous insects by attracting ants in this manner. Jatun Sacha reserve, Napo, Ecuador

    A Camponotus (Myrmmobrachys) ant feeds from the nectaries of an Inga plant. The plant presumably gains protection from herbivorous insects by attracting ants in this manner.

Jatun Sacha res ...

  • Alex Wild
    Allomerus octoarticulatus

    Allomerus octoarticulatus

  • Alex Wild
    Allomerus octoarticulatus

    Allomerus octoarticulatus

  • Alex Wild
    Ectatomma ruidum

    Ectatomma ruidum

  • Alex Wild
    Linepithema iniquum

    Linepithema iniquum

  • Alex Wild
    Ectatomma tuberculatum workers tend to a membracid nymph. Jatun Sacha reserve, Napo, Ecuador

    Ectatomma tuberculatum workers tend to a membracid nymph.

Jatun Sacha reserve, Napo, Ecuador

  • Alex Wild
    Ectatomma tuberculatum workers tend to a membracid nymph. Jatun Sacha reserve, Napo, Ecuador

    Ectatomma tuberculatum workers tend to a membracid nymph.

Jatun Sacha reserve, Napo, Ecuador

  • Alex Wild
    Clidemia bush growing in a devil's garden, a monoculture caused by symbiotic Myrmelachista ants that live in the plants' domatia and kill saplings of competing species. Jatun Sacha reserve, Napo, Ecuador

    Clidemia bush growing in a devil's garden, a monoculture caused by symbiotic Myrmelachista ants that live in the plants' domatia and kill saplings of competing species.

Jatun Sacha reserv ...

  • Alex Wild
    Clidemia bush growing in a devil's garden, a monoculture caused by symbiotic Myrmelachista ants that live in the plants' domatia and kill saplings of competing species. Jatun Sacha reserve, Napo, Ecuador

    Clidemia bush growing in a devil's garden, a monoculture caused by symbiotic Myrmelachista ants that live in the plants' domatia and kill saplings of competing species.

Jatun Sacha reserve, ...

  • Alex Wild
    Ectatomma tuberculatum

    Ectatomma tuberculatum

  • Alex Wild
    Ectatomma tuberculatum

    Ectatomma tuberculatum

  • Alex Wild
    Acromyrmex echinatior

    Acromyrmex echinatior

  • ToyotaTeacherProgram

    ToyotaTeacherProgram's photo

  • Alex Wild
    Prenolepis imparis

    Prenolepis imparis

  • Alex Wild
    The intricate galleries in this underground nest of Lasius umbratus ants are made possible by a fungus that grows within a matrix of wood pulp sculpted by the ants. Vermillion River Observatory, Illinois, USA

    The intricate galleries in this underground nest of Lasius umbratus ants are made possible by a fungus that grows within a matrix of wood pulp sculpted by the ants.

Vermillion River Observa ...

  • Alex Wild
    Lasius umbratus

    Lasius umbratus

  • Alex Wild
    Formica integroides workers tending pine aphids. The ants obtain a large portion of their energy from symbiotic relationships with hemipterans such as these aphids. Sagehen Creek, California, USA

    Formica integroides workers tending pine aphids.  The ants obtain a large portion of their energy from symbiotic relationships with hemipterans such as these aphids.

Sagehen Creek, Califo ...

  • Alex Wild
    The intricate galleries in this underground nest of Lasius umbratus are made possible by a fungus that grows within a matrix of wood pulp sculpted by the ants. Vermillion River Observatory, Illinois, USA

    The intricate galleries in this underground nest of Lasius umbratus are made possible by a fungus that grows within a matrix of wood pulp sculpted by the ants.

Vermillion River Observatory, ...

  • Alex Wild
    Lasius umbratus

    Lasius umbratus

  • Alex Wild
    Aphaenogaster tennesseensis

    Aphaenogaster tennesseensis

  • Alex Wild
    On the underside of a sun-soaked leaf, Aphaenogaster tennesseensis tending to Entylia sp. treehoppers. The treehoppers secrete sweet honeydew for the ants in exchange for protections from parasites and predators. Lake Glendale, Illinois, USA

    On the underside of a sun-soaked leaf, Aphaenogaster tennesseensis tending to Entylia sp. treehoppers.  The treehoppers secrete sweet honeydew for the ants in exchange for protections from p ...

  • Alex Wild
    Aphaenogaster tennesseensis

    Aphaenogaster tennesseensis

  • Alex Wild
    Aphaenogaster tennesseensis

    Aphaenogaster tennesseensis

  • Alex Wild
    Monomorium floricola ranks among the most traveled of all ants. This diminutive species has spread with human commerce to nearly every lowland tropical region. Here, a worker tends to a mealybug in Panama. Isla Contadora, Panama

    Monomorium floricola ranks among the most traveled of all ants.  This diminutive species has spread with human commerce to nearly every lowland tropical region.  Here, a worker tends to a me ...

  • Alex Wild
    Podomyrma adelaidae tends to a Lycaenid caterpillar. These caterpillars secrete substances that the ants find attractive, and the ants in turn provide protection from parasites. Poochera, South Australia

    Podomyrma adelaidae tends to a Lycaenid caterpillar.  These caterpillars secrete substances that the ants find attractive, and the ants in turn provide protection from parasites.

Poochera,  ...

  • Alex Wild
    Papyrius nitidus workers tend hemipteran nymphs on a tree in northern Australia. Iron Range National Park, Queensland, Australia

    Papyrius nitidus workers tend hemipteran nymphs on a tree in northern Australia.

Iron Range National Park, Queensland, Australia

  • Alex Wild
    Cyphomyrmex wheeleri is the most temperate of the Cyphomyrmex species, occurring as far north as San Francisco, California. Here worker ants tend to their fungus garden. Austin, Texas, USA

    Cyphomyrmex wheeleri is the most temperate of the Cyphomyrmex species, occurring as far north as San Francisco, California.  Here worker ants tend to their fungus garden.

Austin, Texas, USA

  • Alex Wild
    Acropyga acutiventris

    Acropyga acutiventris

  • Alex Wild
    Acropyga acutiventris Iron Range National Park, Queensland, Australia

    Acropyga acutiventris

Iron Range National Park, Queensland, Australia

  • Alex Wild
    After mating, a young leafcutter ant queen sheds her wings. Acromyrmex versicolor. Tucson, Arizona, USA

    After mating, a young leafcutter ant queen sheds her wings.  Acromyrmex versicolor.

Tucson, Arizona, USA

  • Alex Wild
    Male leaf-cutting ants (Acromyrmex versicolor) lek above the desert floor, awaiting virgin queens who fly into the swarm to mate. This species flies during the Arizona summer monsoon season, early in the morning after a soaking rain. Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Male leaf-cutting ants (Acromyrmex versicolor) lek above the desert floor, awaiting virgin queens who fly into the swarm to mate.  This species flies during the Arizona summer monsoon season ...

  • Alex Wild
    A desert leafcutter, Acromyrmex versicolor, carrying a leaf back to her nest. Tucson, Arizona, USA

    A desert leafcutter, Acromyrmex versicolor, carrying a leaf back to her nest.

Tucson, Arizona, USA

  • Alex Wild
    Acropyga acutiventris Iron Range National Park, Queensland, Australia

    Acropyga acutiventris

Iron Range National Park, Queensland, Australia

  • Alex Wild
    Monomorium floricola

    Monomorium floricola

  • Alex Wild
    Protected inside a translucent silken tent, Oecophylla longinoda weaver ants gather honeydew from mealybugs. The ants weave the tent using silk produced by their larvae. St. Lucia, KZN, South Africa

    Protected inside a translucent silken tent, Oecophylla longinoda weaver ants gather honeydew from mealybugs. The ants weave the tent using silk produced by their larvae.

St. Lucia, KZN, Sou ...

  • Alex Wild
    Protected inside a translucent silken tent, Oecophylla longinoda weaver ants gather honeydew from mealybugs. The ants weave the tent using silk produced by their larvae. St. Lucia, KZN, South Africa

    Protected inside a translucent silken tent, Oecophylla longinoda weaver ants gather honeydew from mealybugs. The ants weave the tent using silk produced by their larvae.

St. Lucia, KZN, Sou ...

  • Alex Wild
    Podomyrma adelaidae tends to a Lycaenid caterpillar. These caterpillars secrete substances that the ants find attractive, and the ants in turn provide protection from parasites. Poochera, South Australia

    Podomyrma adelaidae tends to a Lycaenid caterpillar.  These caterpillars secrete substances that the ants find attractive, and the ants in turn provide protection from parasites.

Poochera,  ...

  • Alex Wild
    Pseudomyrmex spinicola acacia ants guarding a nest entrance. This species has a painful sting and a much more aggressive temperment than most other Pseudomyrmex, an effective deterrent to large vertebrate herbivores. Chiriqui, Panama

    Pseudomyrmex spinicola acacia ants guarding a nest entrance.  This species has a painful sting and a much more aggressive temperment than most other Pseudomyrmex, an effective deterrent to l ...

  • Alex Wild
    Not all of the thorns on a swollen-thorn Acacia house the ants' larvae, but those that do are heavily guarded. Here, Pseudomyrmex spinicola patrol a nest entrance, ready to use their stings if the photographer approaches too close. Chiriqui, Panama.

    Not all of the thorns on a swollen-thorn Acacia house the ants' larvae, but those that do are heavily guarded.  Here, Pseudomyrmex spinicola patrol a nest entrance, ready to use their stings ...

  • Alex Wild
    Azteca alfari

    Azteca alfari

  • Alex Wild
    Trachymyrmex turrifex queen in the fungus garden. Austin, Texas, USA

    Trachymyrmex turrifex queen in the fungus garden.

Austin, Texas, USA

  • Alex Wild
    Trachymyrmex septentrionalis in the fungus garden. Laboratory colony at the University of Texas

    Trachymyrmex septentrionalis in the fungus garden.

Laboratory colony at the University of Texas

  • Alex Wild
    Trachymyrmex arizonensis foundress queen in her incipient fungus garden. Notice the fine white hyphae of the mutualistic fungus as it grows over the substrate of vegetative debris she has provided for it. Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Trachymyrmex arizonensis foundress queen in her incipient fungus garden.  Notice the fine white hyphae of the mutualistic fungus as it grows over the substrate of vegetative debris she has p ...

  • Alex Wild
    Inside the fungus garden of the asexual ant Mycocepurus smithii. Panama

    Inside the fungus garden of the asexual ant Mycocepurus smithii.

Panama

  • Alex Wild
    Inside the fungus garden of the asexual ant Mycocepurus smithii. Panama

    Inside the fungus garden of the asexual ant Mycocepurus smithii.

Panama

  • Alex Wild
    Mycocepurus smithii

    Mycocepurus smithii

  • Alex Wild
    Cyphomyrmex wheeleri

    Cyphomyrmex wheeleri

  • Alex Wild
    Cyphomyrmex costatus

    Cyphomyrmex costatus

  • Alex Wild
    A Texas Leafcutter Ant (Atta texana) carrying a leaf back to her nest, where it will be fodder for the fungus that sustains the ants. Austin, Texas, USA

    A Texas Leafcutter Ant (Atta texana) carrying a leaf back to her nest, where it will be fodder for the fungus that sustains the ants.

Austin, Texas, USA

  • Alex Wild
    Atta colombica

    Atta colombica

  • Alex Wild
    Leafcutter ants make characteristic circular cuts. Here an ant completes the curve. (Atta cephalotes) Captive colony at the University of Texas

    Leafcutter ants make characteristic circular cuts. Here an ant completes the curve. (Atta cephalotes)

Captive colony at the University of Texas

  • Alex Wild
    A busy highway of Atta cephalotes leafcutter ants carrying their bounty back to the nest. Gamboa, Panama

    A busy highway of Atta cephalotes leafcutter ants carrying their bounty back to the nest.

Gamboa, Panama

  • Alex Wild
    A media worker of Atta cephalotes finishes off a cut. Captive colony at the University of Texas

    A media worker of Atta cephalotes finishes off a cut.

Captive colony at the University of Texas

  • Alex Wild
    Atta cephalotes

    Atta cephalotes

  • Alex Wild
    Atta cephalotes. A small worker atop a leaf guards her sister against attacks by parasitic flies. Ants laden with cargo cannot use their mandibles for defense, so they carry hitchhikers to ward off the parasites. Gamboa, Panama

    Atta cephalotes. A small worker atop a leaf guards her sister against attacks by parasitic flies.  Ants laden with cargo cannot use their mandibles for defense, so they carry hitchhikers to  ...

  • Alex Wild
    Atta cephalotes. Ants carrying leaves are vulnerable to attack by parasitic phorid flies. To help prevent attacks, small guard workers often ride atop the cut vegetation, mandibles open in defensive posture. Intriguingly, hitchhiking is only seen in regions inhabited by the flies. Outside the geographic range of the parasites, leafcutter ants do not show this leaf-riding behavior. Gamboa, Panama

    Atta cephalotes. Ants carrying leaves are vulnerable to attack by parasitic phorid flies.  To help prevent attacks, small guard workers often ride atop the cut vegetation, mandibles open in  ...

  • Alex Wild
    Atta cephalotes

    Atta cephalotes

  • Alex Wild
    Acromyrmex coronatus, cutting through a leaf. Panamá

    Acromyrmex coronatus, cutting through a leaf.

Panamá

  • Alex Wild
    Acromyrmex versicolor

    Acromyrmex versicolor

  • Alex Wild
    A Desert Leafcutter queen (Acromyrmex versicolor) tends to larvae in an incipient fungus garden. Tucson, Arizona, USA

    A Desert Leafcutter queen (Acromyrmex versicolor) tends to larvae in an incipient fungus garden.

Tucson, Arizona, USA

  • Alex Wild
    The birth of an ant-fungus garden, with newly-laid ant eggs and the early stages of fungal growth. Leaf-cutting ant colonies subsist entirely on their cultivated fungus. (Acromyrmex versicolor) Tucson, Arizona, USA

    The birth of an ant-fungus garden, with newly-laid ant eggs and the early stages of fungal growth.  Leaf-cutting ant colonies subsist entirely on their cultivated fungus. (Acromyrmex versico ...

  • Alex Wild
    Acromyrmex versicolor

    Acromyrmex versicolor

  • Alex Wild
    Acromyrmex versicolor

    Acromyrmex versicolor

  • Alex Wild
    Acromyrmex striatus Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Acromyrmex striatus

Santiago del Estero, Argentina

  • Alex Wild
    Acromyrmex lundii finishes a cut. Correa, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Acromyrmex lundii finishes a cut.

Correa, Santa Fe, Argentina

  • Alex Wild
    Acromyrmex sp. nr. crassispinus cutting into an orange peel. Citrus is a favorite target for leafcutters, perhaps because the plants are not native to the Americas and have not yet evolved defenses against the voracious ants. Lagunas de Yala, Jujuy, Argentina

    Acromyrmex sp. nr. crassispinus cutting into an orange peel.  Citrus is a favorite target for leafcutters, perhaps because the plants are not native to the Americas and have not yet evolved  ...

  • Alex Wild
    Acromyrmex coronatus

    Acromyrmex coronatus

  • Alex Wild
    An Acromyrmex balzani worker carries a grass stem back to her nest. Leafcutter species tend to specialize on either broadleaf plants or grasses. Entre Rios, Argentina

    An Acromyrmex balzani worker carries a grass stem back to her nest. Leafcutter species tend to specialize on either broadleaf plants or grasses.

Entre Rios, Argentina

  • Alex Wild
    The swollen thorns of this Panamanian Acacia tree house a colony of fierce Pseudomyrmex spinicola ants. Chiriqui, Panama

    The swollen thorns of this Panamanian Acacia tree house a colony of fierce Pseudomyrmex spinicola ants.  

Chiriqui, Panama

  • Alex Wild
    Cutting open the surprisingly soft flesh of an Acacia thorn reveals larvae and pupae of the Pseudomyrmex spinicola acacia ant. Chiriqui, Panama.

    Cutting open the surprisingly soft flesh of an Acacia thorn reveals larvae and pupae of the Pseudomyrmex spinicola acacia ant.  

Chiriqui, Panama.

  • Alex Wild
    Friend or Foe? Two Pseudomyrmex spinicola acacia ant nestmates evaluate each other at the nest entrance. Panama City, Panama

    Friend or Foe? Two Pseudomyrmex spinicola acacia ant nestmates evaluate each other at the nest entrance. 

Panama City, Panama

  • Alex Wild
    Pseudomyrmex spinicola workers harvest Beltian bodies on an Acacia tree. The tree and the ant are locked into relationship where the survival of both partners depends on the other. The ants provide the Acacia with protection from herbivores and from competing plants, while the tree provides the ants with food and shelter. Chiriqui, Panama.

    Pseudomyrmex spinicola workers harvest Beltian bodies on an Acacia tree. The tree and the ant are locked into relationship where the survival of both partners depends on the other.  The ants ...

  • Alex Wild
    Not all of the thorns on a swollen-thorn Acacia house the ants' larvae, but those that do are heavily guarded. Here, Pseudomyrmex spinicola patrol a nest entrance, ready to use their stings if the photographer approaches too close. Chiriqui, Panama.

    Not all of the thorns on a swollen-thorn Acacia house the ants' larvae, but those that do are heavily guarded.  Here, Pseudomyrmex spinicola patrol a nest entrance, ready to use their stings ...


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